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Stress and Cognitive Appraisal

by Lazarus and Folkman

.

  • Home >
  • Academic >
  • Psychology >
  • Stress and Cognitive Appraisal

.

.


.

Sarah Mae Sincero 141.5K reads
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by Lazarus and Folkman

The model “Theory of Cognitive Appraisal” was proposed by Lazarus and Folkman in 1984 and it explained the mental process which influence of the stressors.

According to Richard Lazarus, stress is a two-way process; it involves the production of stressors by the environment, and the response of an individual subjected to these stressors. His conception regarding stress led to the theory of cognitive appraisal.

.

.

What is Cognitive Appraisal?

Lazarus stated that cognitive appraisal occurs when a person considers two major factors that majorly contribute in his response to stress. These two factors include:

  1. The threatening tendency of the stress to the individual, and
  2. The assessment of resources required to minimize, tolerate or eradicate the stressor and the stress it produces.

In general, cognitive appraisal is divided into two types or stages: primary and secondary appraisal.

See also: Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotion

.

.

Primary Appraisal

In the stage of primary appraisal, an individual tends to ask questions like, “What does this stressor and/ or situation mean?”, and, “How can it influence me?” According to psychologists, the three typical answers to these questions are:

  1. “this is not important”
  2. “this is good”
  3. “this is stressful”

To better understand primary appraisal, suppose a non-stop heavy rain suddenly pours at your place. You might think that the heavy rain is not important, since you don’t have any plans of going somewhere today. Or, you might say that the heavy rain is good, because now you don’t have to wake up early and go to school since classes are suspended. Or, you might see the heavy rain as stressful because you have scheduled a group outing with your friends.

After answering these two questions, the second part of primary cognitive appraisal is to classify whether the stressor or the situation is a threat, a challenge or a harm-loss. When you see the stressor as a threat, you view it as something that will cause future harm, such as failure in exams or getting fired from job. When you look at it as a challenge, you develop a positive stress response because you expect the stressor to lead you to a higher class ranking, or a better employment.

On the other hand, seeing the stressor as a “harm-loss” means that the damage has already been experiences, such as when a person underwent a recent leg amputation, or encountered a car accident.

.

Secondary Appraisal

Unlike in other theories where the stages usually come one after another, the secondary appraisal actually happens simultaneously with the primary appraisal. In fact, there are times that secondary appraisal becomes the cause of a primary appraisal.

Secondary appraisals involve those feelings related to dealing with the stressor or the stress it produces. Uttering statements like, “I can do it if I do my best”, “I will try whether my chances of success are high or not”, and “If this way fails, I can always try another method” indicates positive secondary appraisal. In contrast to these, statements like, “I can’t do it; I know I will fail”, “I will not do it because no one believes I can” and, “I won’t try because my chances are low” indicate negative secondary appraisal.

Although primary and secondary appraisals are often a result of an encounter with a stressor, stress doesn’t always happen with cognitive appraisal. One example is when a person gets involved in a sudden disaster, such as an earthquake, and he doesn’t have more time to think about it, yet he still feels stressful about the situation.

.

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Full reference: 

Sarah Mae Sincero (May 24, 2012). Stress and Cognitive Appraisal. Retrieved Nov 26, 2018 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/stress-and-cognitive-appraisal

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  • 1 General Adaptation Syndrome
  • 2 Three Different Kinds of Stress
  • 3 Coping Mechanisms
  • 4 Psychological Theories of Stress
  • 5 How does Stress Affect Performance?

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  • 5 How does Stress Affect Performance?

Browse Full Outline

  • 1 What is Stress?
  • 2 General Adaptation Syndrome

    • 2.1 Physiological Stress Response
    • 2.2 Nature of Emotions
  • 3 Psychological Theories of Stress

    • 3.1 James-Lange Theory of Emotion
    • 3.2 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
    • 3.3 Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotion
    • 3.4 Stress and Cognitive Appraisal
  • 4 Individual Differences

    • 4.1 Social Support
    • 4.2 Gender and Culture
  • 5 Coping Mechanisms

    • 5.1 Theories of Coping
    • 5.2 Stress Management
    • 5.3 Stress Therapies
    • 5.4 How does Stress Affect Performance?
  • 6 Three Different Kinds of Stress

    • 6.1 Knowing Your Stressors
  • 7 Stress and Illness

    • 7.1 Stress and Cancer
    • 7.2 Warning Signs – Burnout
    • 7.3 Stress in Children
  • 8 Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
  • 9 Myths

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Stress and Cognitive Appraisal

by Lazarus and Folkman

.

  • Home >
  • Academic >
  • Psychology >
  • Stress and Cognitive Appraisal

.

.


.

Sarah Mae Sincero 141.5K reads
Printer-friendly version Send by email PDF version
Share this page on your website

Share this page on your website:

by Lazarus and Folkman

The model “Theory of Cognitive Appraisal” was proposed by Lazarus and Folkman in 1984 and it explained the mental process which influence of the stressors.

According to Richard Lazarus, stress is a two-way process; it involves the production of stressors by the environment, and the response of an individual subjected to these stressors. His conception regarding stress led to the theory of cognitive appraisal.

.

.

What is Cognitive Appraisal?

Lazarus stated that cognitive appraisal occurs when a person considers two major factors that majorly contribute in his response to stress. These two factors include:

  1. The threatening tendency of the stress to the individual, and
  2. The assessment of resources required to minimize, tolerate or eradicate the stressor and the stress it produces.

In general, cognitive appraisal is divided into two types or stages: primary and secondary appraisal.

See also: Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotion

.

.

Primary Appraisal

In the stage of primary appraisal, an individual tends to ask questions like, “What does this stressor and/ or situation mean?”, and, “How can it influence me?” According to psychologists, the three typical answers to these questions are:

  1. “this is not important”
  2. “this is good”
  3. “this is stressful”

To better understand primary appraisal, suppose a non-stop heavy rain suddenly pours at your place. You might think that the heavy rain is not important, since you don’t have any plans of going somewhere today. Or, you might say that the heavy rain is good, because now you don’t have to wake up early and go to school since classes are suspended. Or, you might see the heavy rain as stressful because you have scheduled a group outing with your friends.

After answering these two questions, the second part of primary cognitive appraisal is to classify whether the stressor or the situation is a threat, a challenge or a harm-loss. When you see the stressor as a threat, you view it as something that will cause future harm, such as failure in exams or getting fired from job. When you look at it as a challenge, you develop a positive stress response because you expect the stressor to lead you to a higher class ranking, or a better employment.

On the other hand, seeing the stressor as a “harm-loss” means that the damage has already been experiences, such as when a person underwent a recent leg amputation, or encountered a car accident.

.

Secondary Appraisal

Unlike in other theories where the stages usually come one after another, the secondary appraisal actually happens simultaneously with the primary appraisal. In fact, there are times that secondary appraisal becomes the cause of a primary appraisal.

Secondary appraisals involve those feelings related to dealing with the stressor or the stress it produces. Uttering statements like, “I can do it if I do my best”, “I will try whether my chances of success are high or not”, and “If this way fails, I can always try another method” indicates positive secondary appraisal. In contrast to these, statements like, “I can’t do it; I know I will fail”, “I will not do it because no one believes I can” and, “I won’t try because my chances are low” indicate negative secondary appraisal.

Although primary and secondary appraisals are often a result of an encounter with a stressor, stress doesn’t always happen with cognitive appraisal. One example is when a person gets involved in a sudden disaster, such as an earthquake, and he doesn’t have more time to think about it, yet he still feels stressful about the situation.

.

Check out our quiz-page with tests about:

  • Psychology 101
  • Science
  • Flags and Countries
  • Capitals and Countries

.

.

« Previous Article

“Schachter-Singer Theory of …”
 

Back to Overview

“Stress & Coping”
 

 
Next Article »

“Individual Differences”

.

.

Full reference: 

Sarah Mae Sincero (May 24, 2012). Stress and Cognitive Appraisal. Retrieved Nov 26, 2018 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/stress-and-cognitive-appraisal

.

You Are Allowed To Copy The Text

The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) .

This means you’re free to copy, share and adapt any parts (or all) of the text in the article, as long as you give appropriate credit and provide a link/reference to this page.

That is it. You don’t need our permission to copy the article; just include a link/reference back to this page. You can use it freely (with some kind of link), and we’re also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations (with clear attribution).

.

.

Related articles

  • 1 General Adaptation Syndrome
  • 2 Three Different Kinds of Stress
  • 3 Coping Mechanisms
  • 4 Psychological Theories of Stress
  • 5 How does Stress Affect Performance?

.

Search over 500 articles on psychology, science, and experiments.

.

Want to stay up to date? Follow us!

.

.

report this ad

  • Login
  • Sign Up
  • Privacy Policy

Search website

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ADDITIONAL INFO

English

  • Français
  • Español

.


.

This article is a part of the guide:

Discover 25 more articles on this topic

Don’t miss these related articles:
  • 1 General Adaptation Syndrome
  • 2 Three Different Kinds of Stress
  • 3 Coping Mechanisms
  • 4 Psychological Theories of Stress
  • 5 How does Stress Affect Performance?

Browse Full Outline

  • 1 What is Stress?
  • 2 General Adaptation Syndrome

    • 2.1 Physiological Stress Response
    • 2.2 Nature of Emotions
  • 3 Psychological Theories of Stress

    • 3.1 James-Lange Theory of Emotion
    • 3.2 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
    • 3.3 Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotion
    • 3.4 Stress and Cognitive Appraisal
  • 4 Individual Differences

    • 4.1 Social Support
    • 4.2 Gender and Culture
  • 5 Coping Mechanisms

    • 5.1 Theories of Coping
    • 5.2 Stress Management
    • 5.3 Stress Therapies
    • 5.4 How does Stress Affect Performance?
  • 6 Three Different Kinds of Stress

    • 6.1 Knowing Your Stressors
  • 7 Stress and Illness

    • 7.1 Stress and Cancer
    • 7.2 Warning Signs – Burnout
    • 7.3 Stress in Children
  • 8 Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
  • 9 Myths

.

.

ADDITIONAL INFO

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  • About
  • FAQ
  • Terms
  • Privacy Policy
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  • Site Map
Complete Collection
Like Explorable? Take it with you wherever you go.

Thank you to…
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The Research Council of Norway
Subscribe / Share
  • Subscribe to our RSS Feed
  • Like us on Facebook
  • Follow us on Twitter
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Lazarus and Folkman

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Mia Loseff

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Transcript of Lazarus and Folkman

Richard S. Lazarus and Susan Folkman
Stress, Appraisal and Coping
By Serena and Mia
Biographies
Dr. Richard S. Lazarus
Dr. Susan Folkman
Bibliography
Famous work
Personal Biases
Theory of Stress Management
Contributions to Psychology
Ethical Concerns
Methodology
Major Accomplishments
Application of Work
Attended Brandeis University for history
Studied biological physiology, then attended the University of Missouri for counseling.
Berkeley for her physiology major and educational Psychology
Has lived in San Francisco California since 1988.
Folkman has had a long-standing interest in the way people cope with stress and the relationship. Within the last 13 years she has focused on the highly stressful contexts of caregiving, bereavement, chronic illness, and end-of-life care, primarily in HIV/AIDS.
Explains the idea of stress
Theory has 2 parts to Cognitive appraisal: primary and secondary
Primary- Reaction that you have when a situation occurs
Secondary- involves those feelings related to dealing with the stressor or the stress it produces.
Since their study was published and has had books written on their findings they must have had to follow the ethical rules.
Born March 3, 1922, in New York
Died November 24, 2002, in Walnut Creek, California
served in the army for 3.5 years
wrote 13 books, five after he retired in 1991
two children: David and Nancy with wife of 57 years Bernice
co-wrote Passion and Reason: Making Sense of Our Emotions
professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley

• In 1988 and 1991-Distinguished Visiting Professor,
• Honorary PhD, Utrecht University, The Netherlands in 1998
• Distinguished Visitor, Lund University, Lund, Sweden in 1999
• Mary Opal Wolanin Memorial Lectureship, University of Arizona, Tucson in 2000
• UCSF AIDS Research Institute George S. Sarlo Award for Excellence in Mentoring in 2000
• Dukoff Visiting Professor, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York in 2000
• Distinguished Visiting Professor, Tel Aviv University, Israel
• In 2001, assumed the directorship of a center for integrative medicine at UCSF where she and a team are developing a research program on mind-body approaches to health and healing.
work on coping
studies showing patients engaging in denial about the seriousness of their situation vs more "realistic."
published Stress, Appraisal and Coping
Folkman
Lazarus
named by American Psychologist as one of the most influential psychologists
a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1969-1970
1984, the California Psychological Association gave him special recognition for his outstanding contributions
1989, the American Psychological Association for Distinguished Scientific Contribution
two honorary doctorates in 1988 from the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany, and a second in 1995 from the University of Haifa, in Israel.
• Susan Folkman, PhD | UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center . (n.d.). UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center . Retrieved October 22, 2013, from http://cancer.ucsf.edu/people/profiles/folkman_susan.3532
• Interview with Susan Folkman – YouTube. (n.d.). YouTube. Retrieved October 22, 2013, from
• Stress management – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 22, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_management
• Susan Folkman, PhD | Osher Center for Integrative Medicine. (n.d.). Osher Center for Integrative Medicine. Retrieved October 22, 2013, from http://www.osher.ucsf.edu/research/research-team/emeritus-faculty/susan-folkman-phd/
• Richard Lazarus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 22, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Lazarus
• Stress management – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 22, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_management
Lazarus

Focuses on the transaction between people and their external environment (known as the Transactional Model).
Cognitive level of analysis
Having spent time in the army
Folkman
Major in counseling

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