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11.1 – Pascal’s Triangle and the Binomial Theorem

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11.1 – Pascal’s Triangle and the Binomial Theorem


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FACTORIALS, COMBINATIONS
Factorial is denoted by the symbol “!”. The factorial of a number is calculated by multiplying all integers from the number to 1. Formal Definition The symbol n!, is define as the product of all the integers from n to 1. In other words, n! = n(n – 1)(n – 2)(n – 3) · · · 3 · 2 · 1 Also note that by definition, 0! = 1 Example #9


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Combinations Definition
Combinations give the number of ways x element can be selected from n distinct elements. The total number of combinations is given by, and is read as “the number of combinations of n elements selected x at a time.” The formula for the number of combinations for selecting x from n distinct elements is, Note: 3


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Combinations Example #10


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The Binomial Theorem Strategy only: how do we expand these?
1. (x + 2)2 2. (2x + 3)2 3. (x – 3)3 4. (a + b)4


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The Binomial Theorem Solutions
1. (x + 2)2 = x2 + 2(2)x + 22 = x2 + 4x + 4 2. (2x + 3)2 = (2x)2 + 2(3)(2x) + 32 = 4×2 + 12x + 9 3. (x – 3)3 = (x – 3)(x – 3)2 = (x – 3)(x2 – 2(3)x + 32) = (x – 3)(x2 – 6x + 9) = x(x2 – 6x + 9) – 3(x2 – 6x + 9) = x3 – 6×2 + 9x – 3×2 + 18x – 27 = x3 – 9×2 + 27x – 27 4. (a + b)4 = (a + b)2(a + b)2 = (a2 + 2ab + b2)(a2 + 2ab + b2) = a2(a2 + 2ab + b2) + 2ab(a2 + 2ab + b2) + b2(a2 + 2ab + b2) = a4 + 2a3b + a2b2 + 2a3b + 4a2b2 + 2ab3 + a2b2 + 2ab3 + b4 = a4 + 4a3b + 6a2b2 + 4ab3 + b4


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Isn’t there an easier way?
THAT is a LOT of work! Isn’t there an easier way?


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Introducing: Pascal’s Triangle
Take a moment to copy the first 6 rows. What patterns do you see? Row 5 Row 6


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The Binomial Theorem Use Pascal’s Triangle to expand (a + b)5.
Use the row that has 5 as its second number. The exponents for a begin with 5 and decrease.      1a5b0 + 5a4b1 + 10a3b2 + 10a2b3 + 5a1b4 + 1a0b5 The exponents for b begin with 0 and increase. In its simplest form, the expansion is a5 + 5a4b + 10a3b2 + 10a2b3 + 5ab4 + b5. Row 5


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The Binomial Theorem Use Pascal’s Triangle to expand (x – 3)4.
First write the pattern for raising a binomial to the fourth power.    Coefficients from Pascal’s Triangle. (a + b)4 = a4 + 4a3b + 6a2b2 + 4ab3 + b4 Since (x – 3)4 = (x + (–3))4, substitute x for a and –3 for b. (x + (–3))4 = x4 + 4×3(–3) + 6×2(–3)2 + 4x(–3)3 + (–3)4 = x4 – 12×3 + 54×2 – 108x + 81 The expansion of (x – 3)4 is x4 – 12×3 + 54×2 – 108x + 81.


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The Binomial Theorem For any positive integer, n


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The Binomial Theorem Use the Binomial Theorem to expand (x – y)9.
Write the pattern for raising a binomial to the ninth power. (a + b)9 = 9C0a9 + 9C1a8b + 9C2a7b2 + 9C3a6b3 + 9C4a5b4 + 9C5a4b5 + 9C6a3b6 + 9C7a2b7 + 9C8ab8 + 9C9b9 Substitute x for a and –y for b. Evaluate each combination. (x – y)9 = 9C0x9 + 9C1x8(–y) + 9C2x7(–y)2 + 9C3x6(–y)3 + 9C4x5(–y)4 + 9C5x4(–y)5 + 9C6x3(–y)6 + 9C7x2(–y)7 + 9C8x(–y)8 + 9C9(–y)9 = x9 – 9x8y + 36x7y2 – 84x6y x5y4 – 126x4y5 + 84x3y6 – 36x2y7 + 9xy8 – y9 The expansion of (x – y)9 is x9 – 9x8y + 36x7y2 – 84x6y x5y4 – 126x4y5 + 84x3y6 – 36x2y7 + 9xy8 – y9.


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Let’s Try Some Expand the following a) (x-y5)3 b) (3x-2y)4


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Let’s Try Some Expand the following (x-y5)3


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Let’s Try Some Expand the following (3x-2y)4


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Let’s Try Some Expand the following (3x-2y)4


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How does this relate to probability?
You can use the Binomial Theorem to solve probability problems. If an event has a probability of success p and a probability of failure q, each term in the expansion of (p + q)n represents a probability. Example: 10C2 * p8 q2 represents the probability of 8 successes in 10 tries


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The Binomial Theorem Brianna makes about 90% of the shots on goal she attempts. Find the probability that Bri makes exactly 7 out of 12 consecutive goals. Since you want 7 successes (and 5 failures), use the term p7q5. This term has the coefficient 12C5. Probability (7 out of 10) = 12C5 p7q5 = • (0.9)7(0.1)5 The probability p of success = 90%, or 0.9. 12! 5! •7! = Simplify. Bri has about a 0.4% chance of making exactly 7 out of 12 consecutive goals.



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Investigating Pascal's Triangle

Investigating Pascal's Triangle

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stroevey

Author: Created by
stroevey

Created: Nov 16, 2013| Updated: Feb 22, 2018

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The idea for this investigation came from reading
The Number Devil – A Mathematical Adventure
by Hans Magnus Enzensberger. Basically lots of number work looking at patterns in Pascal’s triangle.

I added an old Fibonacci PPT because the last slide leads into Fibonacci. You could probably find a better resource for that in TES.

Hope you find it useful.

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  • Fibonacci.ppt
  • 6 Pascal's Triangles.docx
  • PASCAL’S_TRIANGLE.pptx

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PASCAL’S_TRIANGLE

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Created: Nov 16, 2013

Updated: Feb 22, 2018

Activity

ppt, 845 KB

Fibonacci

Worksheet

docx, 388 KB

6 Pascal's Triangles

Activity

pptx, 3 MB

PASCAL’S_TRIANGLE

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Categories & Ages

  • Mathematics / Number
  • Mathematics / Number / Addition and subtraction
  • 11-14
  • 14-16

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