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In mathematics , hyperbolic functions are analogs of the ordinary trigonometric , or circular , functions.
The basic hyperbolic functions are:
- hyperbolic sine “sinh” ( /tʃ,
/ ), 
- hyperbolic cosine “cosh” ( /
/ , ), 
from which are derived:
- hyperbolic tangent “tanh” ( /
/ , ), 
- hyperbolic cosecant “csch” or “cosech” ( //  or // )
- hyperbolic secant “sech” ( /
/ , ), 
- hyperbolic cotangent “coth” ( /
/ , ),  
corresponding to the derived trigonometric functions.
The inverse hyperbolic functions are:
- area hyperbolic sine “arsinh” (also denoted “sinh−1“, “asinh” or sometimes “arcsinh”)   
- and so on.
A ray through the unit hyperbola
in the point
is twice the area between the ray, the hyperbola, and the
-axis. For points on the hyperbola below the
-axis, the area is considered negative (see animated version with comparison with the trigonometric (circular) functions).
Just as the points (cos t, sin t) form a circle with a unit radius, the points (cosh t, sinh t) form the right half of the equilateral hyperbola . The hyperbolic functions take a real argument called a hyperbolic angle . The size of a hyperbolic angle is twice the area of its hyperbolic sector . The hyperbolic functions may be defined in terms of the legs of a right triangle covering this sector.
Hyperbolic functions occur in the solutions of many linear differential equations (for example, the equation defining a catenary ), of some cubic equations , in calculations of angles and distances in hyperbolic geometry , and of Laplace’s equation in Cartesian coordinates . Laplace’s equations are important in many areas of physics , including electromagnetic theory , heat transfer , fluid dynamics , and special relativity .
In complex analysis , the hyperbolic functions arise as the imaginary parts of sine and cosine. The hyperbolic sine and the hyperbolic cosine are entire functions . As a result, the other hyperbolic functions are meromorphic in the whole complex plane.
By Lindemann–Weierstrass theorem , the hyperbolic functions have a transcendental value for every non-zero algebraic value of the argument. 
Hyperbolic functions were introduced in the 1760s independently by Vincenzo Riccati and Johann Heinrich Lambert .  Riccati used Sc. and Cc. ([co]sinus circulare) to refer to circular functions and Sh. and Ch. ([co]sinus hyperbolico) to refer to hyperbolic functions. Lambert adopted the names but altered the abbreviations to what they are today.  The abbreviations sh, ch, th, cth are also at disposition, their use depending more on personal preference of mathematics of influence than on the local language.
- 1 Definitions
- 2 Characterizing properties
- 2.1 Hyperbolic cosine
- 2.2 Hyperbolic tangent
- 3 Useful relations
- 3.1 Sums of arguments
- 3.2 Subtraction formulas
- 3.3 Half argument formulas
- 4 Inverse functions as logarithms
- 5 Derivatives
- 6 Second derivatives
- 7 Standard integrals
- 8 Taylor series expressions
- 9 Comparison with circular functions
- 10 Identities
- 11 Relationship to the exponential function
- 12 Hyperbolic functions for complex numbers
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Definitions[ edit ]
sinh, cosh and tanh
csch, sech and coth
(a) cosh(x) is the average of ex and e−x
(b) sinh(x) is half the difference of ex and e−x
There are various equivalent ways for defining the hyperbolic functions. They may be defined in terms of the exponential function :
- Hyperbolic sine: the odd part of the exponential function, that is
- Hyperbolic cosine: the even part of the exponential function, that is
- Hyperbolic tangent:
- Hyperbolic cotangent: for x ≠ 0,
- Hyperbolic secant:
- Hyperbolic cosecant: for x ≠ 0,
The hyperbolic functions may be defined as solutions of differential equations : The hyperbolic sine and cosine are the unique solution (s, c) of the system
s(0) = 0 and c(0) = 1.
They are also the unique solution of the equation
for the hyperbolic cosine, and
for the hyperbolic sine.
Hyperbolic functions may also be deduced from trigonometric functions with complex arguments:
- Hyperbolic sine:
- Hyperbolic cosine:
- Hyperbolic tangent:
- Hyperbolic cotangent:
- Hyperbolic secant:
- Hyperbolic cosecant:
where i is the imaginary unit with the property that
The complex forms in the definitions above derive from Euler’s formula .
Characterizing properties[ edit ]
Hyperbolic cosine[ edit ]
It can be shown that the area under the curve of the hyperbolic cosine over a finite interval is always equal to the arc length corresponding to that interval: 
Hyperbolic tangent[ edit ]
The hyperbolic tangent is the solution to the differential equation
and the nonlinear boundary value problem :  
Useful relations[ edit ]
Odd and even functions:
It can be seen that cosh x and sech x are even functions ; the others are odd functions .
Hyperbolic sine and cosine satisfy:
the last of which is similar to the Pythagorean trigonometric identity .
One also has
for the other functions.
Sums of arguments[ edit ]
Subtraction formulas[ edit ]
Half argument formulas[ edit ]
where sgn is the sign function .
If x ≠ 0, then
Inverse functions as logarithms[ edit ]
Derivatives[ edit ]
Second derivatives[ edit ]
Sinh and cosh are both equal to their second derivative , that is:
All functions with this property are linear combinations of sinh and cosh, in particular the exponential functions
, and the zero function
Standard integrals[ edit ]
The following integrals can be proved using hyperbolic substitution :
where C is the constant of integration .
Taylor series expressions[ edit ]
It is possible to express the above functions as Taylor series :
The function sinh x has a Taylor series expression with only odd exponents for x. Thus it is an odd function , that is, −sinh x = sinh(−x), and sinh 0 = 0.
The function cosh x has a Taylor series expression with only even exponents for x. Thus it is an even function , that is, symmetric with respect to the y-axis. The sum of the sinh and cosh series is the infinite series expression of the exponential function .
- is the nth Bernoulli number
- is the nth Euler number
Comparison with circular functions[ edit ]
Circle and hyperbola tangent at (1,1) display geometry of circular functions in terms of circular sector area u and hyperbolic functions depending on hyperbolic sector area u.
The hyperbolic functions represent an expansion of trigonometry beyond the circular functions . Both types depend on an argument , either circular angle or hyperbolic angle .
Since the area of a circular sector with radius r and angle u is r2u/2, it will be equal to u when r = √. In the diagram such a circle is tangent to the hyperbola xy = 1 at (1,1). The yellow sector depicts an area and angle magnitude. Similarly, the yellow and red sectors together depict an area and hyperbolic angle magnitude .
The legs of the two right triangles with hypotenuse on the ray defining the angles are of length √ times the circular and hyperbolic functions.
The hyperbolic angle is an invariant measure with respect to the squeeze mapping , just as the circular angle is invariant under rotation. 
Identities[ edit ]
The hyperbolic functions satisfy many identities, all of them similar in form to the trigonometric identities . In fact, Osborn’s rule  states that one can convert any trigonometric identity into a hyperbolic identity by expanding it completely in terms of integral powers of sines and cosines, changing sine to sinh and cosine to cosh, and switching the sign of every term which contains a product of 2, 6, 10, 14, … sinhs. This yields for example the addition theorems
the “double argument formulas”
and the “half-argument formulas” 
- Note: This is equivalent to its circular counterpart multiplied by −1.
- Note: This corresponds to its circular counterpart.
The derivative of sinh x is cosh x and the derivative of cosh x is sinh x; this is similar to trigonometric functions, albeit the sign is different (i.e., the derivative of cos x is −sin x).
The Gudermannian function gives a direct relationship between the circular functions and the hyperbolic ones that does not involve complex numbers.
The graph of the function a cosh(x/a) is the catenary , the curve formed by a uniform flexible chain hanging freely between two fixed points under uniform gravity.
Relationship to the exponential function[ edit ]
The decomposition of the exponential function in its even and odd parts gives the identities
The first one is analogous to Euler’s formula
Hyperbolic functions for complex numbers[ edit ]
Since the exponential function can be defined for any complex argument, we can extend the definitions of the hyperbolic functions also to complex arguments. The functions sinh z and cosh z are then holomorphic .
Relationships to ordinary trigonometric functions are given by Euler’s formula for complex numbers:
Thus, hyperbolic functions are periodic with respect to the imaginary component, with period
for hyperbolic tangent and cotangent).
See also[ edit ]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hyperbolic functions .|
- e (mathematical constant)
- Equal incircles theorem , based on sinh
- Inverse hyperbolic functions
- List of integrals of hyperbolic functions
- Poinsot’s spirals
- Sigmoid function
- Trigonometric functions
References[ edit ]
- ^ (1999) Collins Concise Dictionary, 4th edition, HarperCollins, Glasgow,
ISBN 0 00 472257 4 , p. 1386
- ^ a b Collins Concise Dictionary, p. 328
- ^ Collins Concise Dictionary, p. 1520
- ^ Collins Concise Dictionary, p. 1340
- ^ Collins Concise Dictionary, p. 329
- ^ tanh
- ^ Woodhouse, N. M. J. (2003), Special Relativity, London: Springer, p. 71, ISBN 1-85233-426-6
- ^ Abramowitz, Milton ; Stegun, Irene A. , eds. (1972), Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables , New York: Dover Publications , ISBN 978-0-486-61272-0
- ^ Some examples of using arcsinh found in Google Books .
- ^ Niven, Ivan. Irrational Numbers. 1st ed., vol. 11, Mathematical Association of America, 1985. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.4169/j.ctt5hh8zn.
- ^ Robert E. Bradley, Lawrence A. D’Antonio, Charles Edward Sandifer. Euler at 300: an appreciation. Mathematical Association of America, 2007. Page 100.
- ^ Georg F. Becker. Hyperbolic functions. Read Books, 1931. Page xlviii.
- ^ N.P., Bali (2005). Golden Integral Calculus . Firewall Media. p. 472. ISBN 81-7008-169-6 .
Eric W. Weisstein . “Hyperbolic Tangent” . MathWorld . Retrieved 2008-10-20.
“Derivation of tanh solution to 1/2 f′′=f^3−f” . Math StackExchange . Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- ^ Martin, George E. (1986). The foundations of geometry and the non-euclidean plane (1., corr. Springer ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag. p. 416. ISBN 3-540-90694-0 .
- ^ “math.stackexchange.com/q/1565753/88985” . StackExchange (mathematics). Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- ^ Mellen W. Haskell , “On the introduction of the notion of hyperbolic functions”, Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 1:6:155–9, full text
- ^ Osborn, G. (July 1902). “Mnemonic for hyperbolic formulae”. The Mathematical Gazette . 2 (34): 189. JSTOR 3602492 .
Peterson, John Charles (2003). Technical mathematics with calculus (3rd ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 1155. ISBN 0-7668-6189-9 ., Chapter 26, page 1155
External links[ edit ]
- Hazewinkel, Michiel , ed. (2001) , “Hyperbolic functions” , Encyclopedia of Mathematics , Springer Science+Business Media B.V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4
- Hyperbolic functions on PlanetMath
- Hyperbolic functions entry at MathWorld
- GonioLab : Visualization of the unit circle, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions ( Java Web Start )
- Web-based calculator of hyperbolic functions
- Hyperbolic functions
- Hyperbolic geometry
- Analytic functions
- Commons category link is on Wikidata
- Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers
- This page was last edited on 5 December 2018, at 12:05 (UTC).
- Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ;
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