Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument
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|Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument|
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
| 2x” data-file-width=”1365″ data-file-height=”2048″ /> |
A canyon in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument
Location in the United States
Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (Utah)
|Location||Kane County and Garfield County , Utah , United States|
|Nearest city||Kanab, Utah|
|Coordinates||37°24′0″N 111°41′0″W / 37.40000°N 111.68333°W Coordinates : 37°24′0″N 111°41′0″W / 37.40000°N 111.68333°W|
|Area||1,003,863 acres (4,062.49 km2) |
|Established||September 18, 1996|
|Visitors||878,000  (in 2014)|
|Governing body||Bureau of Land Management|
|Website||Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument|
The Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (GSENM) is a United States national monument that originally designated 1,880,461 acres (7,610 km2)  of protected land in southern Utah in 1996. The monument’s size was later reduced by a succeeding presidential proclamation in 2017. The land is among the most remote in the country; it was the last to be mapped in the contiguous United States . 
There are three main regions: the Grand Staircase , the Kaiparowits Plateau , and the Canyons of the Escalante ( Escalante River ). All regions are administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) as part of the National Conservation Lands system. President Bill Clinton designated the area as a national monument in 1996 using his authority under the Antiquities Act . Grand Staircase-Escalante is the largest national monument managed by the BLM.
On December 4, 2017, President Donald Trump ordered that the monument’s size be reduced by nearly 47 percent to 1,003,863 acres (4,062 km2),  with the remainder broken up into three separate areas, two of which border one another along the Paria River .   Conservation, angling, hunting, and outdoor recreation groups have filed suit to block any reduction in the national monument, arguing that the president has no legal authority to materially shrink a national monument. 
- 1 Management
- 2 Geography
- 3 Paleontology
- 4 Human history
- 5 Controversy
- 6 See also
- 7 Footnotes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Management[ edit ]
The monument is managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) rather than the National Park Service . This was the first U.S. national monument managed by the BLM. Visitor centers are located in Cannonville , Big Water , Escalante , and Kanab .
Geography[ edit ]
The monument stretches from the towns of Big Water, Glendale , and Kanab, Utah on the southwest, to the towns of Escalante and Boulder on the northeast. Originally encompassing 1,880,461 acres (7,610 km2), the monument was slightly larger in area than the state of Delaware . After a reduction ordered by presidential proclamation in December 2017, the monument now encompasses 1,003,863 acres (4,062 km2). 
Willis Creek in the Grand Staircase
The western part of the monument is dominated by the Paunsaugunt Plateau and the Paria River , and is adjacent to Bryce Canyon National Park . This section shows the geologic progression of the Grand Staircase . Features include the slot canyons of Bull Valley Gorge, Willis Creek , and Lick Wash which are accessed from Skutumpah Road.
The center section is dominated by a single long ridge, called Kaiparowits Plateau from the west, and called Fifty-Mile Mountain when viewed from the east. Fifty-Mile Mountain stretches southeast from the town of Escalante to the Colorado River in Glen Canyon . The eastern face of the mountain is a 2,200 ft (670 m) escarpment . The western side (the Kaiparowits Plateau) is a shallow slope descending to the south and west.
East of Fifty-Mile Mountain are the Canyons of the Escalante . The monument is bounded by Glen Canyon National Recreation Area on the east and south. The popular hiking, backpacking and canyoneering areas include the slot canyons of Peekaboo, Spooky and Brimstone Canyons , and the backpacking areas of lower Coyote Gulch and Harris Wash . The Devil’s Garden is also located in this area. Access is via the Hole-in-the-Rock Road which extends southeast from the town of Escalante, along the base of Fifty-Mile Mountain. The road was constructed to facilitate Mormon settlement of southeastern Utah, including the town of Bluff . The road is also used by ranchers to access the flat desert at the base of Fifty Mile Mountain for grazing cattle.
Paleontology[ edit ]
Since 2000, numerous dinosaur fossils over 75 million years old have been found at Grand Staircase-Escalante.
In 2002, a volunteer at the monument discovered a 75-million-year-old dinosaur near the Arizona border. On October 3, 2007, the dinosaur’s name, Gryposaurus monumentensis (hook-beaked lizard from the monument) was announced in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society . G. monumentensis was at least 30 feet (9.1 m) long and 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, and has a powerful jaw with more than 800 teeth.   Many of the specimens from the Kaiparowits Formation are reposited at the Natural History Museum of Utah in Salt Lake City .
Two ceratopsid (horned) dinosaurs, also discovered at the monument, were introduced by the Utah Geological Survey in 2007. They were uncovered in the Wahweap formation, which is just below the Kaiparowits formation where the duckbill was extracted. They lived about 80 million or 81 million years ago. The two fossils are called the Last Chance skull and the Nipple Butte skull. They were found in 2002 and 2001, respectively.  Both were later identified as belonging to Diabloceratops . 
In 2013 the discovery of a new species, Lythronax argestes , was announced. It is a tyrannosaur that is approximately 13 million years older than Tyrannosaurus , named for its great resemblance to its descendant. The specimen can be seen at the Natural History Museum of Utah.
Human history[ edit ]
Anthropomorphic petroglyph along the Escalante River
Humans did not settle permanently in the area until the Basketmaker III Era , somewhere around AD 500.  Both the Fremont and ancestral Puebloan people lived here; the Fremont hunting and gathering below the plateau and near the Escalante Valley, and the ancestral Puebloans farming in the canyons. Both groups grew corn, beans, and squash, and built brush-roofed pithouses and took advantage of natural rock shelters. Ruins and rock art can be found throughout the monument.
The first record of white settlers in the region dates from 1866, when Captain James Andrus led a group of cavalry to the headwaters of the Escalante River. In 1871 Jacob Hamblin of Kanab , on his way to resupply the second John Wesley Powell expedition, mistook the Escalante River for the Dirty Devil River and became the first Anglo to travel the length of the canyon.
In 1879 the San Juan Expedition crossed through the monument on their way to a proposed Mormon colony in the far southeastern corner of Utah. Traveling on a largely unexplored route, the group eventually arrived at the 1200-foot (400 m) sandstone cliffs that surrounded Glen Canyon . They found the only breach for many miles in the otherwise vertical cliffs, which they named Hole-in-the-Rock . The narrow, steep, and rocky crevice eventually led to a steep sandy slope in the lower section and eventually down to the Colorado River . With winter settling in, the company decided to go forward, down the crevice, rather than retreat. After six weeks of labor, including excavation and the use of explosives to shift rock, they rigged a pulley system to lower their wagons and animals down the resulting road and off the cliff. There they built a ferry, crossed the river and climbed back out through Cottonwood Canyon on the other side.
Controversy[ edit ]
Metate Arch in Devil’s Garden
The national monument was declared on September 18, 1996 at the height of the 1996 presidential election campaign by President Bill Clinton , and was controversial from the moment of creation. The declaration ceremony was held at Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona , rather than in Utah. 
Local officials such as Democratic U.S. Representative Bill Orton from Utah objected to the designation of the national monument, questioning whether the Antiquities Act allowed such vast amounts of land to be designated.   However, United States Supreme Court decisions have long established the president’s discretion to protect land under the Antiquities Act, and several lawsuits filed in an effort to overturn the designation were dismissed by federal courts.   Monument designation also nixed the Andalex Coal Mine that was proposed for a remote location on the Kaiparowits Plateau. 
Wilderness designation for the lands in the monument had long been sought by environmental groups; however, designation of the monument is not the same as wilderness designation, as activities such as motorized vehicle and mountain bike use are allowed.
Toadstool-shaped hoodoo in the rimrocks area near Paria, Utah
There are contentious issues peculiar to the state of Utah. Certain plots of land were assigned when Utah became a state (in 1896) as School and Institutional Trust Lands (SITLa, a Utah state agency), to be managed to produce funds for the state school system. These lands included scattered plots in the monument that could no longer be developed. The SITLa plots within the monument were exchanged for federal lands elsewhere in Utah, plus equivalent mineral rights and $50 million cash by an act of Congress, the Utah Schools and Lands Exchange Act of 1998, supported by Democrats and Republicans, and signed into law as Public Law 105-335 on October 31, 1998. 
A more difficult problem is the resolution of United States Revised statute 2477 (R.S. 2477) road claims. R.S. 2477 (Section 8 of the 1866 Mining Act) states: “The right-of-way for the construction of highways over public lands, not reserved for public uses, is hereby granted.” The statute was repealed by the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) of 1976, but the repeal was subject to valid existing rights.
A process for resolving disputed claims has not been established, and in 1996, the 104th United States Congress passed a law which prohibited the R.S. 2477 (proposed resolution regulations) written by the Clinton Administration from taking effect without congressional approval. 
The right to maintain and improve the many unpaved roads in the national monument is disputed, with county officials placing county road signs on the roads they claim and occasionally applying bulldozers to grade claimed roads, while the BLM tries to exert control over the same roads. Litigation between the state and federal government over R.S. 2477 and road maintenance in the national monument is an ongoing issue. 
See also[ edit ]
- Ancient Pueblo Peoples
- Bears Ears National Monument
- Cottonwood Canyon Road
- Devil’s Garden
- Grand Staircase
- Grosvenor Arch
- Kodachrome Basin State Park
- Silvestre Vélez de Escalante
- Utah State Route 12
Footnotes[ edit ]
- ^ a b “National Landscape Conservation System National Monuments” (archive). blm.gov. Bureau of Land Management . April 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ “FY 2014 GSENM Manager’s Report (PDF file link on park’s home page)” (PDF). BLM. 2015-01-25. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
- ^ a b c “Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument” . blm.gov. Bureau of Land Management . 2017. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ “Presidential Proclamation Modifying the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument” . Whitehouse.gov. 4 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- ^ Siegel, Josh. “Trump announces he will shrink Bears Ears, Grand Staircase monuments in Utah” . Washingtonexaminer.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- ^ Environmental, conservation groups sue Trump over monument changes . CNN , 4 December 2017
- ^ “Duck-billed dinosaur amazes scientists – USATODAY.com” . www.usatoday.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- ^ “S. Utah dinosaur had a duck-billed snout — and 800 teeth” . Sltrib.com. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- ^ Bauman, Joe; Boren, Ray (October 4, 2007). “Utah’s new dino-stars: Discoveries give clues to distant past” . Deseret Morning News.
- ^ Kirkland, J. I.; DeBlieux, D. D. (2007). “New horned dinosaurs from the Wahweap Formation, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, southern Utah” (PDF). Utah Geological Survey Notes. 39 (3): 4–5.
- ^ Grand Staircase Escalante National Monument . Kane County Utah Office of Tourism and Film Commission. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- ^ Paul Larmer (1996-09-30). “1996: Clinton takes a 1.7 million-acre stand in Utah” . High Country News. Retrieved 2016-01-10.
- ^ Mathew Barrett Gross (2002-02-13). “San Rafael Swell monument proposal could prove that Bush realizes the importance of a fair and public process” . Headwaters News, University of Montana . Archived from the original on 2007-11-26. Retrieved 2008-01-16.
- ^ Davidson, Lee (Sep 27, 1996). “Orton’s bill would erase power to declare permanent monument” . Deseret News .[ permanent dead link ]
- ^ Utah Ass’n of Counties v. George W. Bush , District Court, D. Utah, 2004.
- ^ THE MONUMENTAL LEGACY OF THE ANTIQUITIES ACT OF 1906 , Mark Squillace, Georgia Law Review, 2003.
- ^ Grahame, John D.; Thomas D. Sisk (2002). “Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah (page 3 of 4) Coal Mining vs. Wilderness on the Kaiparowits Plateau” . Land Use History of the Colorado Plateau. Northern Arizona University. Archived from the original on 2007-02-03. Retrieved 2007-03-05.
- ^ “Public Law 105-335” . US Government Printing Office. 1998. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
- ^ Gamboa, Anthony (February 6, 2004). “Recognition of R.S. 2477 Rights-of-Way under the Department of the Interior’s FLPMA Disclaimer Rules and Its Memorandum of Understanding with the State of Utah, B-300912” . US Government Accountability Office. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
- ^ “FY 2014 GSENM Manager’s Report (PDF file link on park’s home page)” (PDF). BLM. 2015-01-25. pp. 6, 14, 15, 55. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
References[ edit ]
- Paul Larmer (editor), Give and Take: How the Clinton Administration’s Public Lands Offensive Transformed the American West (High Country News Books, 2004) ISBN 0-9744485-0-8
- Bureau of Land Management, Grand Staircase-Escalante NM, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Management Plan (U.S. Dept. of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1999)
- David Urmann, Trail Guide to Grand Staircase-Escalante (Gibbs Smith, 1999) ISBN 0-87905-885-4
- Robert B. Keiter, Sarah B. George and Joro Walker (editors), Visions of the Grand Staircase-Escalante: Examining Utah’s Newest National Monument (Utah Museum of Natural History and Wallace Stegner Center, 1998) ISBN 0-940378-12-4
- Julian Smith, “Moon Handbooks Four Corners” (Avalon Travel Publishing, 2003) ISBN 1-56691-581-3
- Fleischner, Thomas Lowe, Singing Stone: A Natural History of the Escalante Canyons (University of Utah Press, 1999) ISBN 978-0-87480-619-9
External links[ edit ]
| Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument ( category )
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument .|
- Bureau of Land Management: official Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument website
- Grand Staircase Escalante Partners support for public awareness, interpretive, educational, scientific, scenic, historical, and cultural activities.
- Bashkin, Michael; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Otsuki, Yuka; Lee, Michelle; Evangelista, Paul; Belnap, Jayne (2003). “Soil characteristics and plant exotic species invasions in the Grand Staircase—Escalante National Monument, Utah, USA”. Applied Soil Ecology. 22: 67. doi : 10.1016/S0929-1393(02)00108-7 .
- Doelling, Hellmut H.; Blackett, Robert E.; Hamblin, Alden H.; Powell, J. Douglas; Pollock, Gayle L. (2000). “Geology of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah” (PDF). In Sprinkel, Douglas A.; Chidsey, Thomas C.; Anderson, Paul B. Geology of Utah’s Parks and Monuments. Utah Geological Association. ISBN 978-0-9702571-0-9 .
- Quigley, Justin James (1999). “Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument: Preservation or Politics?”. Journal of Land, Resources, & Environmental Law. 19: 55.
- United States. Congress. House. (1997). Establishing the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument: Oversight Hearing before the Subcommittee on National Parks and Public Lands of the Committee on Resources, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session, On Establishment … by President Clinton on September 18, 1996: April 29, 1997—Washington, DC. Washington. D.C: G.P.O.
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The Escalante Subdistrict has no marina or launch ramp to access to Lake Powell. It does, however, provide for some of the best backcountry hiking and camping experiences within Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. The lower section of the Escalante River, approximately 12 miles, can be reached by boat from the main channel of Lake Powell. All of the canyons in the Escalante drainage feature excellent hiking opportunities.
Escalante Interagency Visitor Info App
There is great general Trip Planning information on the Coyote Gulch page. Note that fires are not permitted in any drainages of the Escalante River and all of its tributaries. This is the same for the Grand Staircase-Escal
Escalante is a small town, typical of rural southern Utah, however most major tourist services are available, including: motels, a Bed & Breakfast, RV Parks, gas stations (including towing service and auto mechanic), restaurants, grocery stores, a farm supply center, art galleries and gift shops. There is a medical clinic that is open Monday through Friday. The nearest hospital is in Panguitch, about 70 miles west of Escalante. The Escalante Interagency Office is located on the west side of town. This houses a visitor information center, as well as the combined offices for the Dixie National Forest, the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, and the Escalante Subdistrict of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. There are also numerous Forest Service, BLM, and State Park campgrounds in the area.
The Escalante River was named in 1872 by A.H. Thompson, a member of the Powell Survey who passed through the upper basin area on a mapping expedition. He was travelling through the area again in 1875 when a group of Mormon pioneers were planning a settlement in the area. Thompson suggested they name their new town Escalante. The name comes from the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition of 1776. Two Spanish priests, frs. Dominguez and Escalante, traversed much of the southwest in a grueling expedition in an attempt to reach California from Santa Fe, New Mexico. The party did not reach the Escalante drainage, but Thompson, who knew the history of the area, thought it would be a good way in which to honor one of the first known explorers of the Southwest.
Ranching was one of the primary occupations of the new village and the cowboys soon began to push their way into the many canyons of the Escalante seeking good grass and lost cattle. They were among the first non-Indians to see the arches, bridges, alcoves, and other wonders which draw visitors today.
Just prior to World War II, a proposal was put forth in Congress to create Escalante National Park. This proposed park included not only the canyons of the Escalante, but most of southeastern Utah. World War II intervened however and the proposal was all but forgotten in the crush of legislation related to fighting the war. Afterwards, some felt that national priorities had changed and Congress was, perhaps, more reluctant to restrict extractive activities such as mining on so large a chunk of land. Eventually, several national parks and monuments were created in this area, though even their combined size did not approach that of the original Escalante National Park – the park that almost was.
"…[T]here is always an undercurrent of restlessness and wild longing, ‘the wind is in my hair, there’s a fire in my heels,’ and I shall always be a rover, I know." Everett Ruess
In 1934, an aspiring artist and adventurer, 20 year-old Everett Ruess, arrived in Escalante to continue pursuing his vision of wandering wild areas, including the vast canyon country of the Colorado Plateau. After spending time in Escalante getting to know local residents, he struck out with his burros in the direction of the Escalante canyons. He was never seen again and the mystery that resulted endures as one of the greatest known in the region. At first, his parents, accustomed to not hearing from Everett for long periods, waited for word from him. Some four months later, however, they began sending letters to various people in the region seeking assistance in finding their son. Over the next year, four different searches were conducted, one of which enlisted the assistance of an expert Navajo tracker. During one of the searches, they found his burros, nearly starved but alive, in Davis Gulch. Also found was an inscription: "Nemo 1934." What "Nemo" meant remains open to speculation, but his parent thought that it might mean "no one," perhaps reflecting on Everett’s desire to be a part of the unknown wilderness.
Several theories exist to explain Everett’s disappearance. Some speculate that he continued his wanderings with a backpack and departed the region altogether. Some suggested that he might have climbed up crumbling cliffs to explore ancient ruins and fell to his death, the body covered by blowing sand. Others suggest that he may been murdered by cattle rustlers. It had been rumored at the time of Everett’s disappearance that the government was sending an agent to the area to investigate a series of livestock thefts. It was speculated that Everett might have been mistaken as such an agent. The Navajo tracker, however, claimed that Everett had entered Davis Gulch, but had not come out; he stated there were no other tracks except Everett’s.
For more information about Everett Ruess and his wanderings, read Everett Ruess: A Vagabond for Beauty, by W. L. Rusho, Peregrine Smith Books, Salt Lake City.
Last updated: May 31, 2018
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Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument
A Delaware-sized museum of sedimentary erosion that walks you down through a 200-million-year-old staircase of animals (that’s us!), minerals and vegetables—
a.k.a the longest, slowest front porch ever.
Depending on where you stand, Grand Staircase–Escalante National Monument has been quietly doing its thing for between 275 million and 50 million years. But it’s relatively new to us humans: It was the last part of the lower 48 United States to get cartographed, and once people started poking around they realized they were dealing with an un-spent wealth of ancient and modern science and culture. President Bill Clinton set it aside as a national monument in 1996 because its untrammeled significance distinguishes it for researchers and explorers alike. So don’t trammel it. Read more…
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It’s a big empty playground for off-roaders, canyoneers and regular old hikers. Lots of jeep trails, cliffs and other photo-hungry rock forms across GSENM’s 1.9 million acres, too, which are broken up into three geographic sections. From west to east:
So called for the series of plateaus that descend from Bryce Canyon south toward the Grand Canyon , marked by vertical drops at the Pink Cliffs, Grey Cliffs, White Cliffs, Vermillion Cliffs and Chocolate Cliffs. Lots of colorful scenery herein, natch. They ought to call it the Grand Stare-case.
(See: Paria Canyon , Buckskin Gulch , Wire Pass)
(Sound it out.) Nine thousand feet up, this is the highest, wildest, most arid, most remote part of the monument. It’s a big gray-green scalene triangle pointing north to Escalante on Highway 12 , chock full of Late Cretaceous fossils.
(See: Lake Pasture, Fiftymile Creek, Death Ridge, Carcass Canyon, Last Chance Gulch)
CANYONS OF THE ESCALANTE
A rugged, desolate paradise. It’s the rocky bones laid bare after the Escalante River gnawed through earth’s flesh, an exquisite corpse of narrow canyons, towering walls and stunning grottoes. There’s even some hidden life in the seeping shadows.
(See: Death Hollow , Calf Creek , Coyote Gulch , Hole in the Rock Road, Hurricane Wash)
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