Law Dictionary » A » AB INITIO
Latin: From the beginning; from the first act A party is said to be a trespasser ab initio, an estate to be good ab initio, an agreement or deed to be void ab initio, a marriage to be unlawful ab initio, and the like. 2. When a man enters upon lands or into the house of another by authority of law, and afterwards abuses that authority, he becomes a trespasser ab initio. And if an officer neglect to remove goods attached within a reasonable time and continue in possession, his entry becomes a trespass ab initio. 3. But in case of an authority in fact, to enter, an abuse of such authority will not, in general, subject the party to an action of trespass.
- TRESPASSER One who has committed trespass; one who unlawfully enters or intrudes upon another’s land, or…
- IN INITIO Latin meaning In or at the beginning. In initio litis; in the first stage or…
- ACTA EXTERIORA IUDICANT INTERIORA SECRETA Legal maxim and Latin for outward acts indicate the intent hidden from within. You are…
- AB INITIO MUNDI Lat. From the beginning of the world. Ab initio mundi usque act hodiemum diem, from…
- EX POST FACTO contracts, crim. law. This is a technical expression, which signifies, that something has been done…
- PERPETRATOR Generally, this term denotes the person who actually commits a crime or delict, or by…
- VOID AB INITIO Latin, void from the beginning. Never legitimate or valid.
- IPSO FACTO Latin meaning By the fact itself something so obvious on its face that it doesn’t…
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Ab initio ( // AB-i-NISH-ee-oh )  is a Latin term meaning “from the beginning” and is derived from the Latin ab (“from”) + initio, ablative singular of initium (“beginning”).
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Uses
- 2.1 Law
- 2.2 Science and engineering
- 2.3 Other uses
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Etymology[ edit ]
c. 1600, from L., lit. “from the beginning”, from ablative case of initium “entrance, beginning”, related to verb inire “to go into, enter upon, begin”. 
Uses[ edit ]
Ab initio (abbreviation: ab init.) is used in several contexts, including the following:
Law[ edit ]
In law , ab initio refers to something being the case from the start or from the instant of the act rather than from when the court declared it so. For instance, the term “void ab initio” means “to be treated as invalid from the outset.” E.g., in many jurisdictions, if a person signs a contract under duress, that contract is treated as being “void ab initio“.
Typically, documents or acts which are void ab initio cannot be fixed and if a jurisdiction, a document or an act is so declared at law to be void ab initio, the parties are returned to their respective positions that they were at the beginning of the event.
“Void ab initio” is often contrasted with “voidable”, such documents which become void only as of the date of the judicial declaration to that effect.
An insurer facing a claim from an insured who had deceived the insurer on a material fact would claim that the insurance contract was void ab initio; it was null and void from the beginning and that since there was no legally enforceable contract, the insurer ought not to have to pay. 
Science and engineering[ edit ]
- Documentation of a process is said to be ab initio (or from scratch , or from the ground up ) if the documentation shows how to set up and complete the process from basic materials (to which a competent practitioner is expected to have access) without prior special preparation.
- A calculation is said to be ab initio (or “from first principles “) if it relies on basic and established laws of nature without additional assumptions or special models. For example, an ab initio calculation of the properties of liquid water might start with the properties of the constituent hydrogen and oxygen atoms and the laws of electrostatics and quantum mechanics. From these basics, the properties of isolated individual water molecules would be derived, followed by computations of the interactions of larger and larger groups of water molecules, until the bulk properties of water had been determined.
- In chemistry, an abbreviation referring to ab initio quantum chemistry methods .
- Ab initio methods in nuclear physics .
- In biophysics, a method for the prediction of protein structures in protein folding.
- In aviation , the very first stage of flight training.
- In bioinformatics , ab initio is a method for making predictions about biological features using only a computational model without extrinsic comparison to existing data. In this context, it may be sometimes interchangeable with the Latin term de novo .
Other uses[ edit ]
- when describing literature, it is told from the beginning as opposed to in medias res (meaning starting in the middle of the story)
- when describing a subject or a module, say when a person is learning French from the beginning, they are said to be a student of French ab initio
- in language didactics, foreign languages may be studied ab initio, meaning that the course is designed for students with no previous knowledge.
See also[ edit ]
- Ad fontes
- List of legal Latin terms
References[ edit ]
- ^ Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary
- ^ “Etymology for ab initio” . “etymonline.com”. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- ^ “Legal definition at Duhaime.org” . “duhaime.org”. Archived from the original on 14 February 2010. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
External links[ edit ]
|Look up ab initio in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Definition at Dictionary.com
- Latin legal terminology
- Latin literary phrases
- Narrative techniques
- This page was last edited on 29 November 2018, at 16:53 (UTC).
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