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Chapter 2 Pretest

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The core muscles stabilize and protect

the spine.
True
Which of the following is NOT a lifestyle factor that affects physical fitness?
D
The most important lifestyle choice you can make to improve physical fitness is __________.
B
Those with a high fitness rating are more likely to __________.
C
As you grow older, you will need to remain physically active to keep a good level of physical fitness.
True
Choosing to walk or ride your bike to work can positively affect your physical fitness.
True
Which statement is TRUE about the factors affecting physical fitness?
D
Which of the following hobbies contribute to improving your physical fitness?
C
Inherited diseases can __________, which will negatively affect physical fitness.
B
A sedentary job is one that requires physical exertion
False
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U.S. National Library of Medicine

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Genetics Home Reference, Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions

  1. Home
  2. Help Me Understand Genetics
  3. Mutations and Health
  4. How can gene mutations affect health and development?

How can gene mutations affect health and development?

To function correctly, each cell depends on thousands of proteins to do their jobs in the right places at the right times. Sometimes, gene mutations prevent one or more of these proteins from working properly. By changing a gene’s instructions for making a protein, a mutation can cause the protein to malfunction or to be missing entirely. When a mutation alters a protein that plays a critical role in the body, it can disrupt normal development or cause a medical condition. A condition caused by mutations in one or more genes is called a genetic disorder.

In some cases, gene mutations are so severe that they prevent an embryo from surviving until birth. These changes occur in genes that are essential for development, and often disrupt the development of an embryo in its earliest stages. Because these mutations have very serious effects, they are incompatible with life.

It is important to note that genes themselves do not cause disease—genetic disorders are caused by mutations that make a gene function improperly. For example, when people say that someone has “the cystic fibrosis gene,” they are usually referring to a mutated version of the CFTR gene, which causes the disease. All people, including those without cystic fibrosis, have a version of the CFTR gene.

For more information about mutations and genetic disorders:

MedlinePlus provides links to various resources about genetic disorders .

Educational materials about genetic conditions are available from GeneEd.

The Centre for Genetics Education offers a fact sheet about genetic changes that lead to disorders .

Topics in the Mutations and Health chapter

  • What is a gene mutation and how do mutations occur?
  • How can gene mutations affect health and development?
  • Do all gene mutations affect health and development?
  • What kinds of gene mutations are possible?
  • Can a change in the number of genes affect health and development?
  • Can changes in the number of chromosomes affect health and development?
  • Can changes in the structure of chromosomes affect health and development?
  • Can changes in noncoding DNA affect health and development?
  • Can changes in mitochondrial DNA affect health and development?
  • What are complex or multifactorial disorders?
  • What does it mean to have a genetic predisposition to a disease?
  • How are gene mutations involved in evolution?
  • What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide?
  • How are genetic conditions and genes named?

Other chapters in Help Me Understand Genetics

Printable Chapter PDF (3MB)

Published : December 4, 2018

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users with questions about a personal health condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional .