Fishes of the NE Atlantic and the
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Author: Linnaeus, 1758
Myxine glutinosa Linnaeus, 1758
Diagnosis: 24-33 pairs of slime pores in front of the gill openings, 51-70 between the gill openings and the anus, and 10-13 posterior to the anus, giving a total count of 88-102 slime pores. Total cusp count of teeth 32-36 (Fig. B). Usually six pairs of internal gill pouches. Size: in the eastern Atlantic lengths were reported to be between 600 and 790 mm. Anatomical details are given by Marinelli & Strenger (1956), and systematical information is given by Fernholm (1981).
Habitat: littoral to meso-abyssal (20-600 m) on muddy bottom. In Norwegian fjords reported to occur to 1,100 m. Food: see family. Reproduction: eggs are few in number (19-30) and large (20-25 mm), the horny shell has a cluster of anchor-tipped filaments at each end (Fig. C).
Distribution: Mediterranean Sea around African coast (Dieuzeide, 1956), absent in eastern Mediterranean and Black Seas; Atlantic coast from Portugal to the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and Varanger Fjord; from Davis Strait to Florida (unpublished). Abundant in many areas.
Eggs, larvae and young stages. No larval stages in M. glutinosa; eggs few but large (circa 20 mm) (Schnakenbeck, 1931:1, fig. I | Walvig, 1963, in Brodal & Fange: 546-556, fig. 10-14).
Status in World Register of Marine Species
Accepted name: Myxine glutinosa Linnaeus, 1758
Scientific synonyms and common names
Myxine glutinosa Linnaeus, 1758
Myxine glutinosa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. X: 650 (‘Habitat in Oceano’). Type: unknown.
Adam, L.L.; Strahan, R. 1963. Systematics and geographical distribution of Myxinoids. In: Brodal & Fänge, Biology of Myxine: 1-8.
Andriashev, A. P.1954. Ryby severnykh morei SSSR. Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Moskwa-Leningrad. (English trans. 1964, Jerusalem, IPST, 617 p., 300 fig.)
Bigelow, H. B.; Schroeder, W. C.1948a. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Cyclostomes. Mem. Sears Found. Mar. Res., New Haven, 1(2): 29-58, fig. 1-5.
Couch, J. 1867-68. A History of the Fishes of the British Islands, 2nd Ed. London, 1,1867: vii+245 p., fig. n. num., col. pl. I-LVII; 2,1867: iv+265 p., col. pl. LVIII CXX, 3,1868: iv+208 p., col. pl. CXXI-CLXXIX; 4,1867: iv+439 p., fig. n. num., col. pl. CLXXX-CCXVIII+XV, LXXVI, LXXXII, CXXIII.
Dieuzeide, R. 1956. Les myxines (Myxine glutinosa L.) en Mediterranée. Bull. Stat. Aquic. Pêche Castiglione, 8: 11-27.
Fabricius, 0.1780. Fauna Groenlandica, systematice sistens, animalia Groenlandiae occidentalis, Copenhagen & Leipzig: 452 p., pl. [Pisces :157-183].
Fernholm, B. 1981. A new species of hagfish of the genus Myxine, with notes on other eastern Atlantic myxinids. J. Fish. Biol., 19: 73-82.
Fontaine, M. 1958. Formes actuelles des Cyclostomes. Répartition géographique, systématique. In: P.-P. Grassé, Traité de Zoologie, 13 :151-163.
Fries, B. F.; Ekström, C. U.; Sundevall, C. J. 1893-95. A History of Scandinavian Fishes, rev. and compl. by F. A. Smitt, Stockholm & Paris, I, 1893 :1-566+viii, fig. 1-134; II, 1895: 567-1240, fig. 135380; Atlas, Pt. I, 1893, pl. I-XXVII; Pt. II, 1895, pl. XXVII A-LIII.
Günther, A.1870. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. 8. Catalogue of the Physostomi containing the families Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae, Muraenidae, Pegasidae and of the Lophobranchii, Plectognathi, Dipnoi, Ganoidei, Chondropterygii, Cyclostomata, Leptocardii in the collection of the British Museum. London, xxv+549 p.
Garman, S. 1899. Reports on a exploration off the west coasts of Mexico, Central and South America, and off the Galapagos Islands in charge of Alexander Agassiz, by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer ‘Albatross’ during 1891, Lieut. Commander Z. L. Tanner, U.S.A. commanding. XXVI. The Fishes. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv., 24 :1-431, 97 pl., I map.
Girard, C. F. 1859b. Ichthyological Notices. Proc. Acad nat. Sci. Philad , 1858 ,10 : 223-225.
Holly, M. 1933. Cyclostomata. Das Tierreich, 59: xiv+62 p., 57 fig.
Jenkins, J. T. 1925. The fishes of the British Isles both fresh water and salt. London: vii+ 376 p., 143 pl.
Jensen, A. S.1926. Investigations of the ‘Dana’ in West Greenland waters, 1925. Rapp. P.-v. Cons. int. Explor. Mer, Copenhague, 39: 85-100.
Jensen, A. S.1941b. The marsipobranchs of Greenland. Vidensk. Meddr. dansk naturh. Foren., 105: 55-57.
Jordan, D. S.; Evermann, B. W.; Clark, H. W. 1930. Check list of the fishes and fishlike vertebrates of North and Middle America north of the northern boundary of Venezuela and Columbia. Rep. U.S. Commnr Fish. for 1928, part II: 670 p. (Reprint 1962, Eric Lundberg, Ashton, Maryland).
Leim, A. H.; Scott, W. B. 1966. Fishes of the Atlantic coast of Canada. Bull Fish. Res. Bd Can., (155): 485 p., many fig., unnumbered, 4 col. pl.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, ed. X, vol. 1, 824 p. Nantes & Pisces: 230-338. (Reprint, 1956, London.)
Marinelli, W. 1956. Myxine glutinosa L., Ibid., Vol. I(II), p. 81-172.
Nybelin, 0.1964a. Agnathi: 223-225. In: Andersson, Fiskar och Fiske i Norden.
Rauther, M. 1924. Cyclostomi in Bronn’s Klassen u. Ordnun. Tierreichs, 6 (1): 583-701, fig. 116 124.
Regan, C. T. 1913b. A revision of the Myxinoids of the genus Myxine. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (8) 11: 395-398.
Schnakenbeck, W. 1927. Cyclostomi. In: G. Grimpe & E. Wagler. Die Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostsee, Leipzig, 7 (12): dl-dl4, 13 fig.
Schnakenbeck, W. 1931a. Myxine glutinosa. In: L. Joubin, ed., Faune ichthyol. Atlant. N., Copenhagen: fiche 3.
Soljan, T. 1948. Fauna i flora jadrana. 1. Ribe Inst. Oceanogr. Ribarst. Jugoslavia. Zagreb, Hrvatske, 437 p., 1350 fig.
Vladykov, V. D. l951a. The capture of the Hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec. Copeia, (1): 84.
Walvig, F. 1963. The gonads and the formation of the sexual cells: 530-580, fig. 1-23. In: Brodal & Fänge. The Biology of Myxine, Universitetsførlaget, Oslo.
Myxine glutinosa map
Good, but large individuals may contain elevated mercury levels.
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South Atlantic Federal Waters
Circle Hooks & Dehooking
No minimum size limit.
Must be landed with head and fins intact.
If you are bringing fish back to the U.S. from the Bahamas by water, please see Bringing fish back from the Bahamas .
Commercial regulations for South Atlantic Federal Waters
CLOSED effective August 22, 2018. Reopens January 1, 2019.
Size Limit: None
Trip Limit: None
Limited Access permit required.
All species must be landed with head and fins intact.
Recreational and commercial fishermen are required to use dehooking tools when fishing for snapper grouper species.
The use of non-stainless steel circle hooks (offset or non-offset) is required for all species in the snapper grouper complex when using hook-and-line gear with natural baits in waters North of 28 degrees N. latitude.
After the commercial quota is met, all purchase and sale is prohibited and harvest and/or possession is limited to the recreational bag limit. This prohibition does not apply to fish harvested, landed, and sold prior to the quota being reached and held in cold storage by a dealer. Quotas are given in gutted weights.
Commercial snapper grouper vessels must have onboard NMFS approved sea turtle release gear and follow smalltooth sawfish release protocol. See the Handling and Release Protocol from NOAA Fisheries or call 727-824-5312.
Annual Catch Limit (ACL) – This species is managed under an ACL. See current information on Commercial ACLs (quotas) from NOAA Fisheries.
For more information, see Almaco Jack Commercial Regulations
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Name: Reef Fish
No minimum size limit.
No trip limit.
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Name: Reef Fish
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Name: 20 Fish
No minimum size.
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Recreational Offshore Landing Permit
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No minimum size limit. Bag limit = 100 pounds.
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Name: Reef Fish
There is a twenty fish aggregate creel limit for reef fish species for which there is no other creel limit. See outdooralabama.com for more details.
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No minimum or maximum size limit.
No closed season.
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No established size limit or bag limit in state waters. General limit of 100 pounds or 2 fish (which ever is greater) applies in state waters.
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Valenciennes , 1833
Almaco jack (Seriola rivoliana  ) is a game fish of the family Carangidae ; they are in the same family as yellowtail and amberjack .  They feed, both day and night, on other smaller fish such as baitfish and small squid . The flesh is thick and dense like tuna and can easily pass for white albacore if prepared as sushi . 
- 1 Taxonomy
- 2 Description
- 3 Distribution and habitat
- 4 Behavior
- 5 Aquaculture
- 6 As Food
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Taxonomy[ edit ]
An Almaco jack caught by a recreational fisherman
Achille Valenciennes , and Georges Cuvier first described the Almaco jack. The description was published in 1833 although Cuvier died in 1832. Valenciennes and Cuvier together described many fish species , most notably in the 22 volume Histoire naturelle des poissons, (Natural History of Fish). 
Description[ edit ]
The Almaco jack has a less elongated, more flattened body than most jack species. Their dorsal fin and anal fins are elongated, and their outer edges have a definite sickle shape. The first rays of the Almaco dorsal fin’s longest parts are nearly twice as long as the dorsal spines , also different from other jacks.
They reach a typical length of 90 centimetres (35 in), sometimes reaching 160 centimetres (63 in) and 59.9 kilograms (132 lb). 
Almaco jacks are generally dusky-colored with faint amber or olive stripes down their sides. Their upper bodies and lower fins are usually dark brown or dark blue-green. The belly is much lighter and appears brassy or lavender. The nuchal bar and most of the fins is dark on adults. Exceptions are the pelvic fins which are white on the ventral sides.
Distribution and habitat[ edit ]
The Almaco jack is a pelagic species that can be found in small groups on slopes and off of reefs at depths from 5 to 160 metres (2.7 to 87.5 fathoms). They visit wrecks more often than most other jacks. In the Indian to the west Pacific oceans, Almaco jack live from Kenya to South Africa and have been spotted off Mariana Islands , Wake island , Ryukyu Islands , Kermadec Islands and New Caledonia . In the eastern Pacific, Almaco jack live from California to Peru and the Galápagos Islands . In the western Atlantic, they live mostly from Cape Cod to northern Argentina although they are rare off North and South Carolina . Almaco jack are not as common in the Eastern Atlantic as elsewhere. Almaco live near Great Britain and off Lampedusa in the Mediterranean sea .[ citation needed ]
They typically swim at depths ranging from 5–35 metres (16–115 ft). 
Behavior[ edit ]
Almaco jack’s unusual stamina makes them a prime target for deep sea fishermen .
They remove skin-based parasites by rubbing against the rough skin of passing sharks . Almaco jack also rub against passing scuba divers because they mistake them for sharks.  These fish spawn as often as weekly throughout the year. 
Aquaculture[ edit ]
Almaco jacks are farmed/ranched near the Island of Hawaii under the brand name Hawaiian Kanpachi; and in La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico under the brand name: Baja Kanpachi, as a domesticated alternative to wild tuna. Global production reached 1,000,000 pounds (450,000 kg) in 2008.   They have never been commercially harvested on a large scale and are abundant in the wild.  Almaco jack can cause a disease in humans called ciguatera through bioaccumulation of ciguatoxin produced by a microscopic organism called dinoflagellate .  However, farmed Almacos on a controlled diet are free of these dinoflagellates and therefore do not result in ciguatera if eaten. 
These fish have among the best feed-conversion ratios ever achieved. With no selective breeding at all, the amount of fish required to produce one pound ranges from 1.6:1–2:1, ten times better than the observed ratio for bluefin tuna. The resulting meat has a fat content of around 30%. 
They are typically grown in ring or diamond-shaped net pens moored to the sea bottom 800 feet (240 m) below. The sites chosen are areas that experience strong currents that mitigate the impact of the waste that the fish drop. 
As Food[ edit ]
S. rivoliana is quite delicious and can be prepared in a myriad of dishes from completely raw (e.g. sushi, sashimi, crudo, etc.) to fully cooked (e.g. grilled, steamed, baked, etc).
Notes[ edit ]
- ^ a b c d Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). “Seriola rivoliana” in FishBase . April 2006 version.
- ^ a b c d e f Greenberg 2010
Seriola rivoliana, Almaco Jack – MarineBio.org. Retrieved Monday, January 21, 2008, from http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=442
- ^ a b c Greenberg 2010 , 3171
- ^ “Kona Blue” . Kona Blue Water Farms. Archived from the original on 2011-02-18. Retrieved 2008-06-25.
References[ edit ]
- Seriola rivoliana, Almaco Jack – MarineBio.org. Retrieved Monday, January 21, 2008. “Almaco Jacks, Seriola rivoliana ~ MarineBio.org” . Archived from the original on 2014-03-03..
- IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . “The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species” . Archived from the original on 2014-06-27. Downloaded on 21 January 2008.
- Greenberg, Paul (July 2010). Four Fish: The Future of the Last Wild Food. The Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1-59420-256-8 .
External links[ edit ]
- SERIOLA RIVOLIANA from New Caledonia (En/Fr)
- Fish of the Atlantic Ocean
- Fish described in 1833
- Articles with ‘species’ microformats
- All articles with unsourced statements
- Articles with unsourced statements from March 2012
- This page was last edited on 13 October 2018, at 08:35 (UTC).
- Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ;
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