Cambridge dictionaries logo
- English (UK)
- English (US)
- Español (Latinoamérica)
- 中文 (简体)
- 正體中文 (繁體)
- Tiếng Việt
Meaning of “allusion” in the English Dictionary
“allusion” in English
See all translations
noun [ C ]
› something that is said or written that is intended to make you think of a particular thing or person :
Thesaurus: synonyms and related words
Figurative use of language
as it were idiom
mix your metaphors idiom
See more results »
You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics:
(Definition of “allusion” from the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus © Cambridge University Press)
“allusion” in American English
See all translations
noun [ C ]
› literature a brief or indirect reference :
(Definition of “allusion” from the Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary © Cambridge University Press)
Examples of “allusion”
Translations of “allusion”
- in Chinese (Traditional)
- in French
- in Polish
- in Turkish
- in Norwegian
- in German
- in Czech
- in Danish
- in Portuguese
- in Russian
- in Chinese (Simplified)
ima, kinaye, taş…
hentydning, allusjon (i litteratur)…
Get a quick, free translation!
allude to sb/sth
allude to someone/something
Create and share your own word lists and quizzes for free!
Sign up now
Word of the Day
a white layer of pieces of ice like needles that forms on objects outside when it is very cold
Fussy eaters and healthy appetites (Words and phrases to describe the way we eat)
cart abandonment noun
More new words
Get our free widgets
Add the power of Cambridge Dictionary to your website using our free search box widgets.
Browse our dictionary apps today and ensure you are never again lost for words.
Jump to navigation
Jump to search
This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2014) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
Allusion is a figure of speech , in which an object or circumstance from unrelated context is referenced covertly or indirectly.   It is left to the audience to make the direct connection;  where the connection is directly and explicitly stated (as opposed to indirectly implied) by the author, it is instead usually termed a reference .    In the arts, a literary allusion puts the alluded text in a new context under which it assumes new meanings and denotations .  It is not possible to predetermine the nature of all the new meanings and inter-textual patterns that an allusion will generate.  Literary allusion is closely related to parody and pastiche , which are also “text-linking” literary devices . 
In a wider, more informal context, an allusion is a passing or casually short statement indicating broader meaning. It is an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication, such as “In the stock market, he met his Waterloo.”
- 1 Scope of the term
- 2 Allusion as cultural bond
- 3 Academic analysis of the concept of allusions
- 4 Examples
- 4.1 15 minutes of fame
- 4.2 Lot’s Wife/Pillar of Salt
- 4.3 Cassandra
- 4.4 Catch-22
- 4.5 T. S. Eliot
- 4.6 James Joyce
- 5 References
- 6 Bibliography
Scope of the term[ edit ]
Backside of a clay tablet from Pylos bearing the motif of the Labyrinth , an allusion to the mythological fight of Theseus and the Minotaur
In the most traditional sense, allusion is a literary term, though the word has also come to encompass indirect references to any source, including allusions in film or the visual arts .  In literature, allusions are used to link concepts that the reader already has knowledge of, with concepts discussed in the story. In the field of film criticism, a film-maker’s intentionally unspoken visual reference to another film is also called an homage . It may even be sensed that real events have allusive overtones, when a previous event is inescapably recalled by a current one. “Allusion is bound up with a vital and perennial topic in literary theory, the place of authorial intention in interpretation”, William Irwin observed, in asking “What is an allusion?” 
Without the hearer or reader’s comprehending the author’s intention, an allusion becomes merely a decorative device.
Allusion is an economical device, a figure of speech that uses a relatively short space to draw upon the ready stock of ideas, cultural memes or emotion already associated with a topic. Thus, an allusion is understandable only to those with prior knowledge of the covert reference in question, a mark of their cultural literacy . 
Allusion as cultural bond[ edit ]
The origin of allusion is in the Latin verb ludere, lusus est “to play with, jest.”[ citation needed ] Recognizing the point of allusion’s condensed riddle also reinforces cultural solidarity between the maker of the allusion and the hearer: their shared familiarity with allusion bonds them. Ted Cohen finds such a “cultivation of intimacy” to be an essential element of many jokes .  Some aspect of the referent must be invoked and identified for the tacit association to be made; the allusion is indirect in part because “it depends on something more than mere substitution of a referent.” 
The allusion depends as well on the author’s intent; a reader may search out parallels to a figure of speech or a passage, of which the author was unaware, and offer them as unconscious allusions—coincidences that a critic might not find illuminating.[ dubious – discuss ] Addressing such issues is an aspect of hermeneutics .
William Irwin remarks that allusion moves in only one direction: “If A alludes to B, then B does not allude to A. The Bible does not allude to Shakespeare, though Shakespeare may allude to the Bible.” Irwin appends a note: “Only a divine author, outside of time, would seem capable of alluding to a later text.”  This is the basis for Christian readings of Old Testament prophecy , which asserts that passages are to be read as allusions to future events due to Jesus’s revelation in Luke 24:25-27 .
Allusion differs from the similar term intertextuality in that it is an intentional effort on the author’s part.  The success of an allusion depends in part on at least some of its audience “getting” it. Allusions may be made increasingly obscure, until at last they are understood by the author alone, who thereby retreats into a private language (e.g. “Ulalume”, by Edgar Allan Poe ).
Academic analysis of the concept of allusions[ edit ]
In discussing the richly allusive poetry of Virgil ‘s Georgics , R. F. Thomas  distinguished six categories of allusive reference, which are applicable to a wider cultural sphere. These types are:
- Casual Reference, “the use of language which recalls a specific antecedent, but only in a general sense” that is relatively unimportant to the new context;
- Single Reference, in which the hearer or reader is intended to “recall the context of the model and apply that context to the new situation”; such a specific single reference in Virgil, according to Thomas, is a means of “making connections or conveying ideas on a level of intense subtlety”;
- Self-Reference, where the locus is in the poet’s own work;
- Corrective Allusion, where the imitation is clearly in opposition to the original source’s intentions;
- Apparent Reference “which seems clearly to recall a specific model but which on closer inspection frustrates that intention”; and
- Multiple Reference or Conflation, which refers in various ways simultaneously to several sources, fusing and transforming the cultural traditions.
A type of literature has grown round explorations of the allusions in such works as Alexander Pope ‘s The Rape of the Lock or T. S. Eliot ‘s The Waste Land .
Examples[ edit ]
In Homer , brief allusions could be made to mythic themes of generations previous to the main narrative because they were already familiar to the epic’s hearers: one example is the theme of the Calydonian boarhunt . In Hellenistic Alexandria, literary culture and a fixed literary canon known to readers and hearers made a densely allusive poetry effective; the poems of Callimachus offer the best-known examples.
Martin Luther King, Jr. , alluded to the Gettysburg Address in starting his ” I Have a Dream ” speech by saying ‘Five score years ago…”; his hearers were immediately reminded of Abraham Lincoln ‘s “Four score and seven years ago”, which opened the Gettysburg Address. King’s allusion effectively called up parallels in two historic moments without overwhelming his speech with details.
A sobriquet is an allusion. By metonymy one aspect of a person or other referent is selected to identify it, and it is this shared aspect that makes a sobriquet evocative: for example, “the city that never sleeps” is a sobriquet of (and therefore an allusion to) New York.
An allusion may become trite and stale through unthinking overuse, devolving into a mere cliché , as is seen in some of the sections below.
15 minutes of fame[ edit ]
Andy Warhol , a 20th-century American artist most famous for his pop-art images of Campbell soup cans and of Marilyn Monroe , commented on the explosion of media coverage by saying, “In the future, everyone will be world-famous for 15 minutes.”
Today, when someone receives a great deal of media attention for something fairly trivial, and he or she is said to be experiencing his or her ” 15 minutes of fame “, that is an allusion to Andy Warhol’s famous remark.
Lot’s Wife/Pillar of Salt[ edit ]
According to the Book of Genesis, God destroyed the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, but Lot, the nephew of Abraham, was given time to escape with his family before the destruction. God commanded Lot and his family not to look back as they fled. Lot’s wife disobeyed and looked back, and she was immediately turned into a pillar of salt as punishment for her disobedience.
An allusion to Lot’s wife or to a pillar of salt is usually a reference to someone who unwisely chooses to look back once he or she has begun on a course of action or to someone who disobeys an explicit rule or command.
Cassandra[ edit ]
In Greek mythology , Cassandra , the daughter of Trojan king Priam , was loved by Apollo , who gave her the gift of prophecy . When Cassandra later angered Apollo, he altered the gift so that her prophecies, while true, would not be believed. Thus, her accurate warnings to the Trojans were disregarded, and disaster befell them.
Today, a “Cassandra” refers to someone who predicts disasters or negative results, especially to someone whose predictions are disregarded.
Catch-22[ edit ]
This phrase comes from a novel by Joseph Heller . Catch-22 is set on a U.S. Army Air Force base in World War II . “Catch-22” refers to a regulation that states an airman’s request to be relieved from flight duty can only be granted if he is judged to be insane. However, anyone who does not want to fly dangerous missions is obviously sane, thus, there is no way to avoid flying the missions.
Later in the book the old woman in Rome explains that Catch-22 means “They can do whatever they want to do.” This refers to the theme of the novel in which the authority figures consistently abuse their powers, leaving the consequences to those under their command.
In common speech, “catch-22” has come to describe any absurd or no-win situation .
T. S. Eliot[ edit ]
The poetry of T. S. Eliot is often described as “allusive”, because of his habit of referring to names, places or images that may only make sense in the light of prior knowledge. This technique can add to the experience, but for the uninitiated can make Eliot’s work seem dense and hard to decipher.
James Joyce[ edit ]
The most densely allusive work in modern English may be Finnegans Wake by James Joyce . Joseph Campbell and Henry Morton Robinson wrote A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake (1944) that unlocked some of Joyce’s most obscure allusions.
References[ edit ]
- ^ “allusion | Definition of allusion in English by Oxford Dictionaries” . Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- ^ “A covert, implied or indirect reference” ( OED ); Carmela Perri explored the extent to which an allusion may be overt, in “On alluding” Poetics 7 (1978), and M. H. Abrams defined allusion as “a brief reference, explicit or indirect, to a person, place or event, or to another literary work or passage”. (Abrams, A Glossary of Literary Terms 1971, s.v. “Allusion”).
- ^ H.W. Fowler, A Dictionary of Modern English Usage.
- ^ “the definition of allusion” . Dictionary.com. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- ^ “the definition of reference” . Dictionary.com. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- ^ “Allusion” . 2015.
allusion, in literature, an implied or indirect reference to a person, event, or thing or to a part of another text.
- ^ a b c Ben-Porot (1976) pp.107-8 quotation:
The literary allusion is a device for the simultaneous activation of two texts. The activation is achieved through the manipulation of a special signal: a sign (simple or complex) in a given text characterized by an additional larger “referent.” This referent is always an independent text. The simultaneous activation of the two texts thus connected results in the formation of intertextual patterns whose nature cannot be predetermined. … The “free” nature of the intertextual patterns is the feature by which it would be possible to distinguish between the literary allusion and other closely related text-linking devices, such as parody and pastiche.
- ^ a b c Preminger & Brogan (1993) The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton University Press.
- ^ Irwin, “What Is an Allusion?” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 59 (2001)
- ^ (Cohen, Jokes: Philosophical Thoughts on Joking Matters [University of Chicago Press] 1999:28f). Irwin 2001:note 8 noted the parallel.
- ^ Irwin 2001:288
- ^ Irwin 2001:289 and note 22.
- ^ R. F. Thomas, “Virgil’s Georgics and the art of reference” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 90 (1986) pp 171–98.
Bibliography[ edit ]
- Ben-Porot, Ziva (1976) The Poetics of Literary Allusion, p. 108, in PTL: A Journal for descriptive poetics and theory of literature 1
- Irwin, William (2001). “What Is an Allusion?” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 59 (3): 287-297.
- Irwin, W. T. (2002). “The Aesthetics of Allusion.” Journal of Value Inquiry: 36 (4).
- Pasco, Allan H. Allusion: A Literary Graft. 1994. Charlottesville: Rookwood Press, 2002.
- Figures of speech
- Rhetorical techniques
- Literary techniques
- Articles needing additional references from February 2014
- All articles needing additional references
- All articles with unsourced statements
- Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014
- All accuracy disputes
- Articles with disputed statements from April 2014
- This page was last edited on 1 October 2018, at 16:23 (UTC).
- Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ;
- About Wikipedia
- Contact Wikipedia
- Cookie statement
- Mobile view
See more synonyms for allusion on Thesaurus.com
- a passing or casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication: The novel’s title is an allusion to Shakespeare.
- the act of alluding ; the making of a casual or indirect reference to something: The Bible is a fertile source of allusion in art.
- Obsolete. a metaphor or parable.
- What's the Difference Between i.e. and e.g.?
- Can You Translate These Famous Phrases From Emoji?
- These Are the Longest Words in English
- These Are the Saddest Phrases in English
Origin of allusion
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2018
Related Words for allusion
quotation , connotation , remark , inference , suggestion , innuendo , citation , insinuation , imputation , mention , charge , indication , statement , intimation , denotation , implication
Examples from the Web for allusion
Contemporary Examples of allusion
From Cyrus on, however, it was all, to borrow another Biblical allusion, fire and brimstone.Netanyahu Swims Against Iranian Diplomatic Current
October 2, 2013
And near the end of the play, Seguin offered an allusion to Fiddler on the Roof, yelling, “Sunrise, sunset!”Chaz Bono’s ‘Independence Day’: Strippers, Racism & More Crazy Moments
June 25, 2013
I never miss a chance to make an allusion to their similarity.‘Mad Men’ Creator Matthew Weiner on the Season Finale
June 24, 2013
So should the allusion to the Vietnam War trump that of doomed Sharon Tate?‘Mad Men’: The Bizarre Megan Draper as Sharon Tate Conspiracy Theory
May 29, 2013
The allusion to Prime Suspect, a massive hit on both sides of the Atlantic, is well founded.The Haunting New Serial-Killer Thriller Heading to Netflix
May 22, 2013
Historical Examples of allusion
The allusion and a consciousness of Vancouver brought a smile into Viviette’s eyes.Viviette
William J. Locke
Austin, who did not see the allusion, had to allow Dick to speak for himself.Viviette
William J. Locke
The youth vanishes; no reader can find a trace of him, or even an allusion to him.The Man Shakespeare
Strange to say, he made no allusion to his daughter’s return nor to Jim’s absence.The Underdog
F. Hopkinson Smith
I have been early taught to shun all allusion to his memory.Alice, or The Mysteries, Complete
- the act of alluding
- a passing reference; oblique or obscure mention
Word Origin for allusion
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
1540s, from Latin allusionem (nominative allusio) “a playing with, a reference to,” noun of action from past participle stem of alludere (see allude ). An allusion is never an outright or explicit mention of the person or thing the speaker seems to have in mind.
An indirect reference to some piece of knowledge not actually mentioned. Allusions usually come from a body of information that the author presumes the reader will know. For example, an author who writes, “She was another Helen,” is alluding to the proverbial beauty of Helen of Troy .
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Others Are Reading
Word of the Day
- Words We Get Wrong: How Many of These Can You Say?
- Did You Know Real People Write the Dictionary?
Nearby words for allusion
- alluvial fan
- alluvial mining
- alluvial plain